American engineer and teacher, cowinner (with John Bardeen and Walter
H. Brattain) of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1956 for their development
of the transistor, a device that largely replaced the bulkier and less-efficient
vacuum tube and ushered in the age of microminiature electronics.
After the war, Shockley returned to Bell Telephone as director of its research program on solid-state physics. Working with Bardeen and Brattain, he resumed his attempts to use semiconductors as amplifiers and controllers of electronic signals. The three men invented the point-contact transistor in 1947 and a more effective device, the junction transistor, in 1948. Shockley was deputy director of the Weapons Systems Evaluation Group of the Department of Defense in 1954-55. He joined Beckman Instruments, Inc., to establish the Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory in 1955. In 1958 he became lecturer at Stanford University, California, and in 1963 he became the first Poniatoff professor of engineering science there (emeritus, 1974). He wrote Electrons and Holes in Semiconductors (1950).
During the late 1960s Shockley became a figure of some controversy
because of his widely debated views on the intellectual differences
between races. He held that standardized intelligence tests reflect
a genetic factor in intellectual capacity and that tests for IQ (intelligence
quotient) reveal that blacks are inferior to whites. He further concluded
that the higher rate of reproduction among blacks had a retrogressive
effect on evolution.
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