English physicist, winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1928 for his work on electron emission by hot metals, the basic principle used in vacuum tubes. He was born on the 26th of April, 1879, at Dewsbury, Yorkshire, England, as the only son of Joshua Henry and Charlotte Maria Richardson.
Richardson, a graduate (1900) of Trinity College, Cambridge, and a
student of J.J. Thomson at the Cavendish Laboratory, was appointed professor
of physics at Princeton University (1906-13). In 1911 he proved that
electrons are emitted from hot metal and not from the surrounding air,
as some had thought. That same year he proposed a mathematical equation
that relates the rate of electron emission to the absolute temperature
of the metal. This equation, called Richardson's law or the Richardson-Dushmann
equation, became an important aid in electron-tube research and technology.
In 1914 Richardson became professor of physics and, 10 years later,
director of research at King's College of the University of London,
retiring in 1944. He was knighted in 1939.
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