In the 1960s Weinberg and Salam had each independently devised a theory
by which the weak nuclear force and the electromagnetic force could
be conceived as manifestations of a single unified force called the
electroweak force. Their theory could be applied only to leptons, however,
a class of particles that includes electrons and neutrinos. Glashow
found a way to extend their theory to other classes of elementary particles,
notably baryons (e.g., protons and neutrons) and mesons. In doing so,
Glashow had to invent a new property for quarks, which are the fundamental
particles that constitute baryons and mesons. This new property, which
Glashow called "charm," provided a valuable extension of the
theory of quarks.
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