Giaever conducted most of his work in solid-state physics and particularly
in superconductivity. He pursued the possible applications to superconductor
technology of Esaki's work in tunneling, eventually "marrying,"
as he put it, the two concepts to produce superconductor devices that
flouted previously accepted limitations and allowed electrons to pass
like waves of radiation through "holes" in solid-state devices.
Using a sandwich consisting of an insulated piece of superconducting
metal and a normal one, he achieved new tunneling effects that led to
greater understanding of superconductivity and that provided support
for the BCS theory of superconductivity, for which John Bardeen (B),
Leon Cooper (C), and John Robert Schrieffer (S) had won the Nobel Prize
for Physics in 1972. It was for this work--based in part on Esaki's
and further developed by Josephson--that Giaever shared the 1973 Nobel
Prize with Esaki and Josephson.
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