Ossietzky opposed German militarism and political extremism of both the left and right. By the time Adolf Hitler became chancellor of Germany in January 1933, Ossietzky had resumed his editorship, in which he uncompromisingly attacked the Nazis. Steadfastly refusing to flee Germany, he was arrested on Feb. 28, 1933, and sent to Papenburg concentration camp. After enduring three years of incarceration and torture in the camps, Ossietzky was transferred in May 1936 to a prison hospital in Berlin by the German government, which was growing alarmed at the international publicity his case had begun to attract.
On Nov. 24, 1936, Ossietzky was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace for
1935. The award was interpreted as an expression of worldwide censure
of Nazism. Hitler's reply was a decree forbidding Germans to accept
any Nobel Prize. Though not allowed to leave Germany, Ossietzky was
permitted to move to a private sanatorium where, his health broken,
he died of illness.
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