Nelly Sachs


Nelly Sachs
(1891 - 1970)


German poet and dramatist who was transformed by the Nazi experience from a dilettante into a poignant spokesperson for the grief and yearnings of her fellow Jews. When, with S.Y. Agnon, she was awarded the 1966 Nobel Prize for Literature, she observed that Agnon represented Israel whereas "I represent the tragedy of the Jewish people."
The daughter of a prosperous manufacturer, Sachs grew up in the fashionable Tiergarten section of Berlin and began writing verse at age 17. Romantic and conventional, her poems of the 1920s appeared in newspapers but were mainly for her own entertainment.

As the advent of Nazism in Germany darkened her life, she sought comfort in ancient Jewish writings. In 1940, after learning that she was destined for a forced-labour camp, she escaped to Sweden with the help of the Swedish novelist Selma Lagerlof, who had been her pen pal and who interceded with the Swedish royal family in her behalf. She lived with her mother in a one-room apartment, learned Swedish, and translated German poetry into Swedish.

Sachs's lyrics from those years combine lean simplicity with imagery variously tender, searing, or mystical. Her famous "O die Schornsteine" ("O the Chimneys"), in which Israel's body drifts upward as smoke from the Nazi death camps, was selected as the title poem for a 1967 collection of her work in English translation.

Her best-known play is Eli: Ein Mysterienspiel vom Leiden Israels (1951; Eli: A Mystery Play of the Sufferings of Israel, included in the O the Chimneys collection). Before she won the Nobel Prize on her 75th birthday, she received the 1965 Peace Prize of German Publishers. In accepting the award from the land she had fled, she said (in the spirit of concord and forgiveness that are among the themes in her poems), "In spite of all the horrors of the past, I believe in you."


 


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