Paul Sabatier


Paul Sabatier
(1854-1941)

Organic chemist who shared the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1912 with Victor Grignard for researches in catalytic organic synthesis, and particularly for discovering the use of nickel as a catalyst in hydrogenation (the addition of hydrogen to molecules of carbon compounds).
Sabatier studied at the Ecole Normale Superieure and under P.E. Marcellin Berthelot at the College de France, taking his doctor's degree in 1880. After a year at the University of Bordeaux, he moved to the University of Toulouse in 1882, where he became professor (1884) and dean (1905) and where he remained until retirement in 1930.

Sabatier's various discoveries formed the bases of the margarine, oil hydrogenation, and synthetic methanol industries, as well as of numerous laboratory syntheses. He explored nearly the whole field of catalytic syntheses in organic chemistry, personally investigating several hundred hydrogenation and dehydrogenation reactions, showing that several other metals besides nickel possess catalytic activity, though in smaller degree. He also studied catalytic hydration and dehydration, examining both the feasibility of specific reactions and the general activity of the various catalysts.




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